It tends to perpetuate a focus on biological factors (see, especially the discussion of alcoholism in the Appendix) and edge out existential, spiritual, philosophical, depth psychological, and other nonmedical approaches to suffering (Ghaemi 2011). The findings indicated that recovery processes are hard work, and feelings of wellbeing and success vary over time. During the analysis, it became clear that several interrelated aspects of life were essential in searching for a better life. Each of the informants shared their experiences and reflections about vulnerability, resources and the need for professional and social support.

  • So, should researchers aggregate disparate presentations to capture the fundamental “complexity” of TMD or disaggregate them to produce groupings that are more scientifically and clinically meaningful (i.e., valid in the normal sense of the term)?
  • Findings provide the population-level risk factors to improve risk assessments and to tailor future interventions to stem and ameliorate the opioid epidemic.
  • When neurogenetic attributions are presented in the clinic, pharmacological treatments are often believed to be a more effective option over psychotherapy (Phelan, Yang, and Cruz-Rojas 2006).
  • The instruments described so far are necessary for assessment of psychosocial functioning.
  • What the appropriate balance in this regard is and how it shall be achieved are political questions that deserve public debate.

Some patients may prefer to accept a higher level of pain in exchange for fewer side effects, while others may require higher analgesia relief. Identifying and meeting those outcomes is the principle for effective pain management (Varrassi et al. 2010). Assessment of past medical history is essential to rule out underlying non-HIV related conditions. Substance and drug history should not only include assessment of illicit substances, but also neurotoxic antiretroviral medications, cytotoxic chemotherapy, isoniazid, and ‘megadoses’ of vitamins that may have neurotoxic effects such as pyridoxine (Phillips et al. 2010a, b). The biopsychosocial model takes an inclusive approach to addiction treatment, combining all three elements of the above-mentioned treatment models into a workable approach. For most, this is the best treatment option, as addiction does not just impact one part of a person’s life, it impacts all of it.

Temporomandibular disorder(s)

It is worth noting that, despite general awareness of their importance, psychosocial factors are sometimes deemphasized in everyday medical practice (Weiner 2008; Edwards et al. 2016). The biopsychosocial model of addiction (Figure 1) posits that intersecting biological, psycho-social and systemic properties are fundamental features of health and illness. The model includes the way in which macro factors inform and shape micro systems and brings biological, psychological and social levels into active interaction with one another. It is a model based on Engel’s original biopsychosocial model (Engel 1977) for which he argued that to develop a scientific and comprehensive description of mental health, theories that promote biological reductionism should be dismissed in favour of those that adhere to general systems theory. The contemporary model, adapted for addiction, reflects an interactive dynamic for understanding substance use problems specifically and addressing the complexity of addiction-related issues. The empirical foundation of this model is thus interdisciplinary, and both descriptive and applied.

a biopsychosocial approach to substance abuse

They talked about the use of substances as isolated incidents or a more regular occurrence. Most of them started using substances at age 12–15, and heroin or amphetamines were their main substances, combined with cannabis, prescription drugs and alcohol. The deontological principle of respect for persons is a characteristic feature of harm reduction efforts such as HAT. This ethical principle is justified and framed as a matter of human rights, which maintains that injection drug users, for example, have the right, like other less stigmatized members of society, to access medical and social services.